This thesis considers the book “Shame and Necessity” by Bernard Williams. Two main themes are discussed, which are “Necessity of Identity” and “Autonomy and necessary behaviour”. Williams’ ideas on these topics are compared to the views of Kwame Anthony Appiah from the book “Ethics of Identity”. It is shown what role these concepts played in Ancient Greek society and these findings are compared to the role these concepts plays in modern society. This thesis aims to provide new insights into modern society by learning more about the underlying structures of Ancient Greek society. Our motivations are more closely related than might seem at first sight.