The research has attempted to explore the reasons of controversy and criticisms that affirmative action confronts in the course of the policy implementation. In spite of good intention pursuing substantive equality and social integration, affirmative action often encounters resistance that by providing special treatment towards deprived groups, it generates discriminations to non- target groups. Besides, the policy receives a criticism that benefits of the policy go to only a few recipients, leaving the major of target groups in the inferior situations. It is worth to examine that why the good will intention policy faces unintended consequence in order to make a better policy choice and effective implementation. The study concludes that the characteristics of affirmative action themselves contain room for resistance and limitation for actual outcomes. The first nature of the policy is that it focuses on intervening in the result of competition with special measures in employment, without redressing the causes of deprived situation. The way of the policy approach generates backlash from people who believe the dominant social rule of the equal opportunity. Besides, as the policy copes with the results thus the actual outcome of the policy is low with a few recipients. The second nature of the policy is the sensitiveness to political climate. Dealing with the result by distribution within society requires moral support from people but the policy is often changed by political climate, it undermines its value as the equality policy.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Affirmative action, Positive action, Balanced personnel policy, Equality
Thesis Advisor Haan, Arjan de
Persistent URL
Series Poverty Studies and Policy Analysis (POV)
Lee, Hunam. (2011, December 15). The personnel policy in the civil service for inclusive society in Korea and in the Netherlands. Poverty Studies and Policy Analysis (POV). Retrieved from