Being aware of the urban transportation problems in Yogyakarta, and wanting to minimize their negative impact, the government of Yogyakarta Special Region (the equivalent of provincial government) has introduced several transportation programs, and Trans Jogja is one of the programs for providing urban public transport in Yogyakarta. However, the existence of Trans Jogja has still not managed to make it the alternative main transportation option for people in Yogyakarta. Private vehicle use in Yogyakarta still increased during the period (2008-2016), showing that dependency on private vehicles in Yogyakarta is still high. Using the concept of Transport Demand Management (TDM) with the implementation of push and pull strategies, the main objective of this research is to explain how push and pull strategies influence a modal shift from private vehicle use to public transportation (Trans Jogja) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. To support the research objective, the main research question of this study is “How do push and pull strategies influence a modal shift from private vehicle use to public transportation in the case of Trans Jogja in Yogyakarta, Indonesia?” This research used survey (questionnaire), interview, and secondary data as research instruments. The questionnaire in the survey was used to gather primary information of actual behavior of commuters in making a modal choice that could be influenced by TDM policy (implementation of push and pull strategies); and what respondents preferably need to do to make a modal shift from private vehicles to public transportation. The interviews were conducted to gather in-depth information from the government as policy-maker, policy-developer, and operator of Trans Jogja. Last, secondary data were used to support the explanation about push and pull strategies as TDM policy implementation in Yogyakarta, and its relationship with a modal shift from private vehicle to public transport. Based on the findings of this research, current Trans Jogja users do not use Trans Jogja for all their trip purposes. Some only use Trans Jogja for certain trip purposes, and most of those are trip purposes with a high degree of flexibility. Moreover, the findings in the field survey reveals that quality of service is more important than travel costs in getting them to make a modal shift. Respondents would still use their private vehicles even if they could travel free of charge, if this is not in combination with the provision of a good service. The quality of Trans Jogja’s services need to be improved, especially with regard to waiting environment; reducing waiting time; reducing the number of public transport interchanges; providing adequate operational hours and affordable ticket fare; and also ensuring safety of passengers when using Trans Jogja to attract more people to use Trans Jogja based on the data analysis. Three transportation policies were implemented as push strategies in Yogyakarta, namely parking management, restricted road policy, and taxation on cars and fuel. Nonetheless, those three implemented transportation policies currently have given less influence to respondents in making modal shift from private vehicle use to Trans Jogja. Finding of this research shows that the implemented policies were still supply-oriented rather than demand-management, so that the policies implemented give less pressure and still give comfort for commuters to use private vehicles.

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Beenakker, I. (Ivo)
Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies

Danandjojo, Y.N.E. (Yescha). (2016, October 3). The Influence of Push and Pull Strategies on a Modal Shift from Private Vehicle Use to Trans Jogja in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Retrieved from