Which institutional barriers (and opportunities) exist in the climate adaptation planning process and how they interact with each other in the Municipality of Beirut (Lebanon)?
The Municipality of Beirut has not up-taken climate adaptation policies nor has a climate adaptation action plan per se, at least there is no clear evidence. It seems that the need to plan for climate adaptation is not understood. The objective of this study is therefore to explain possible institutional barriers (at the Individual level, Organisational level and Enabling environment level) within the Municipality of Beirut that are hindering the adaptation process and in addition explain how they interact leading to ‘vicious cycles’ of barriers in the understanding phase (Problem detection, Information gathering and use and Problem redefinition. On the other hand, the study also explains opportunities to overcome barriers. The research strategy is a single case study. The study uses a mixed method approach. The main research method is interviews together with expert consultations and content analysis. Experts with a working background in Beirut are consulted to compare information provided by members of the Municipality. Similarly, analysis of existent written information such as a local publication or an official statement, are analysed to compare it with information provided by members of the municipality and the experts. To analyse data, barriers, vicious cycles and opportunities were quantified by the number of times they were suggested by informants. The main barriers hindering the adaptation process are: Climate scarcely on the municipality’s agenda (Enabling environment) that affects the Problem detection. The Lack of interest (Individual level) that affects the Problem detection and Information gathering and use, and the Lack of a specialised department (Organisation level) that affects the Problem detection, Information gathering and use and the Problem redefinition. There are barriers that form vicious cycles. The main cycle is between Climate scarcely on the municipality’s agenda and the Lack of individual interest. To some extent, most barriers are associated to them. From this cycle, other cycles can appear augmenting the magnitude of the problem. However, the simple existence of an institutional barrier does not necessarily imply the creation of new barriers. On the other hand, the main opportunities to overcome institutional barriers are: Central and international support (Enabling environment level), Data bank creation (Organisational level), and in equal importance Awareness of current climatic threats (Individual level) and NGO’s and civil society pressure. It is concluded that there are crucial issues in the whole setting of the Municipality of Beirut that are hindering the understanding of climate adaptation. Vicious cycles perpetuate some existent barriers hindering the municipality’s ability to continue the adaptation process. It is recommended for the Municipality of Beirut to address top barriers that it has relative control of strategically. The Lack of interest can be addressed through Capacity building workshops. The Lack of a specialised department can be tackled through the Creation of a specialised department. Further research is recommended on possible virtuous cycles of opportunities.
|, , , ,|
|Olivotto, V. (Veronica)|
|Organisation||Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies|
Reyes, L.Z. (Leonardo Zea). (2017, September). Which institutional barriers (and opportunities) exist in the climate adaptation planning process and how they interact with each other in the Municipality of Beirut (Lebanon)?. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/42843