As an international creative industry from a country which is not dominating in culture and language, Japanese Manga and Anime are undoubtedly successful around the world. This study supposed that there is a strategy of the industry, therefore, the research target is to find out how Japanese Manga and Anime industry internationalize from the historical perspective. This research explores the history of this industry since post-war to the current time. The conceptual Framework applied to study the process of internationalization is the Uppsala model. The research method is mainly qualitative research, plenty of primary sources from newspapers, government reports, and document from related associations will be reviewed. The business model, talent training system, and the industrial cluster of the industry will also be looked into. At the same time, the influences of government policy and the fans (creative consumers) will be analyzed. According to the Uppsala model, it is found that the premise of the internationalization of this industry is that it has achieved success in the domestic market at first. Also, the reason why the Japanese Manga and Anime industry began to fully develop internationalization is inextricably linked to the market decline caused by the weak domestic economy. The background of Japan's bubble economy and the "Cool Japan" policy proposed by the Abe government after the millennium also helped the promotion of this industry. On the other hand, when Manga and Anime were accepted by around the world, these fan groups also emerged at the same time. These creative consumers not only became readers and audiences but also spontaneously organized fan groups to produce doujinshi (the fans artwork, fan-fiction, and derivatives) and fansubbing. However, these unauthorized re-creation actions are actually an infringement of copyright. Whether the well-known reputation really brings the corresponding benefits and returns to the creators and producers seems to be a question worth to be explored. From this perspective, the question can be asked whether the internationalization of Japanese Manga and Anime was really so successful? To conclude, the process of internationalization of the industry is constructed by not only the promotion of policies and the formation of a global communication network but also coordinated with the "fans group." As a relatively open market, the internationalization of the industry is not dominated by the government in the beginning. However, the promotion led by government policy has indeed brought some help to the internationalization of the industry, especially the funds for branding and authorized creation marketing. In the case of the Japanese Manga and Anime industry, the internationalization experience seems to be successful, but it also sacrifices the guarantee of copyright. However, it does bring out the possibility of different cultural globalization. At the same time, in the era of globalization, it is not just the government and multinational corporations that support cultural diffusion. The general public, as a creative participant, also has the possibility as an actor to fight against capital, promote cultural exchanges, and become a producer of culture.

Additional Metadata
Keywords global markets, local creativities, glocal, Manga, Anime, Creative industry, marketing strategy, Japanimation, internationalization, fans culture, creative consumer, cultural industry, Cool Japan
Thesis Advisor B. Wubs
Persistent URL
Series Global Markets, Local Creativities (GLOCAL)
C.H. Tu. (2019, July 10). Configuring Appropriate Support:. Global Markets, Local Creativities (GLOCAL). Retrieved from