While Canada is generally upheld as a multicultural and a tolerant society, this research demonstrates that social exclusion and discrimination continue to be the experience of First Nation communities in the country. It focuses on the experiences of the First Nations Communities in the metropolitan areas in Northern Ontario region in Canada, specifically in the Manitoulin Island Municipality in the 21st century in Whitefish River First Nation, Birch Island. It uses an ethnographic approach and the use of individual life narratives to reflect on how these legacies of exclusion and discrimination influence their lives as individuals and as a community, over a period of time and beginning from their early childhood. It demonstrates the continuing disadvantages and marginalisation, that these peoples face with regard to their basic capabilities, i.e. , income, health and education. In addition, it also highlights the effects of racism that still pervades their lives. The paper argues that these practices continued over a period of time have resulted in these communities experiencing physical, structural and cultural violence, it claims that these features demonstrate serious social injustice for these groups, reflected in a denial of their social citizenship and human rights.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Indigenous People in Canada, Human Rights, Social Citizenship, Social Exclusion, Structural Violence, Cultural Genocide, Systemic Discrimination, Missing and Murdered Woman
Thesis Advisor Kurian, Rachel
Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/2105/51338
Series Social Justice Perspectives (SJP)
Inguva Venkata Sai Lakshmi, Hrishikesh. (2019, December 20). Social Exclusion, Structural Violence and the denial of Social Justice and Human Rights of Indigenous Communities: An Ethnographic Study of Whitefish River First Nation in Birch Island, Ontario, Canada. Social Justice Perspectives (SJP). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/51338