This research is an exploratory study, which discusses Inclusive Innovation Mechanisms and the potential adoption of Frugal Innovation projects in a Transition-driven Urban Living Lab. It is believed that by exploring the links between these two concepts an inclusive smart city model can be created as well as increasing equality of BoP in cities like Amsterdam. In this respect, the four inclusive dimensions framework developed by Schillo and Robinson (2017) resulted to be useful to give a shape to these mechanisms. Secondly, the study defined key influencing factors on the potential adoption of FI projects in an Urban Living Lab. In order to reach this goal, the theory of diffusion and the Theory of planned behavior were used to see the level of attractiveness of FI characteristics in a ULL. Finally, there is an attempt to illustrate possible patterns between mechanisms and adoption of FI projects to produce innovation strategies for inclusion. Two research strategies were selected to answer theoretical and empirical research questions. These strategies are desk research of academic literature and Case Study, which are particularly appropriate to study how inclusive innovation mechanisms facilitate the potential adoption of frugal projects in an Urban Living Lab operating under Amsterdam’s smart city program. The analysis uncovers strategies and practices involve in the innovation processes. Resulting in a relevant framework where IIMs stimulate the adoption of FI projects and at the same time FI might strengthen the performance of IIMs in the ULL. In addition, the research complements the four-dimensional framework for inclusive innovation created by Schillo and Robinson (2017) by adding a list of possible mechanisms useful to boost inclusion in an organization. Lastly, policy, theoretical and practical contribution are given. As a result, the study found that by applying inclusion innovation mechanisms and allowing them to work as a mediator’s Smart cities can be frugal. However, future research should be orientated towards the application of these IIMs in other smart initiatives to prove their inclusive nature and their relationship with the potential adoption of FI projects in a western context.

Additional Metadata
Keywords smart city development, inclusive mechanisms, frugal innovation, local and urban development, transition Urban Living Labs
Thesis Advisor Fransen, Jan
Persistent URL
Series Governance and Development Policy (GDP)
Espinal Peláez, Claudia Yamile. (2019, December 20). Can smart cities be frugal? An exploratory study of Inclusive Innovation Mechanisms and influencing factors on the potential adoption of frugal projects in an urban living lab in Amsterdam. Governance and Development Policy (GDP). Retrieved from