Today, in a number of industries automation has many roles. The same is present within the maritime industry. Automated vehicles, sensors, lasers, terminal operating systems, and many other innovations have started to arise in container terminals worldwide. Thus, this paper examined the impact of automation on port performance, the determinants of port performance, and the effect of automation on greenhouse emissions. A literature review provided an outlook on automation and port performance. Additionally, different determinants of port performance were explained, including location, economic factors and port productivity. Following, the quantitative analysis was conducted on four selected transhipment ports: Algeciras, Valencia, Barcelona and Gioia Tauro from 2008 until 2017. The analysis was performed using linear regression. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis provided a broader overview on port automation and port productivity on the four selected ports. Three indicators were used for port productivity: berth productivity based on the vessel capacity, productivity based on crane movements per hour per vessel capacity, and the combination indicator. The main findings indicate that automation within transhipment ports does not lead to positive port performance. Additionally, the use of automated equipment provides higher levels of greenhouse emissions in the regions where the ports are located. However, qualitative analysis shows that port productivity impacts port performance, and the use of the right equipment plays an important role in it. On the other hand, the variables from the quantitative analysis indicate that the national level of gross domestic product proves an increase in port throughput and port performance. Principally, when it comes to transhipment ports automation does not provide any considerable increases in port performance.

maritime industry, port container terminals, transhipment ports, terminal automation, automated equipment, port performance indicators, port productivity, throughput
Streng, M.A.

Raimund, D. (Daniela). (2020, July 31). Impact of Automation on Port Container Terminals. A Case Study on Transhipment Ports. Retrieved from