In economics, scholars learn that people make rational choices with regards to their own interest. In practice however, this is not always the case. It was this discrepancy that Adam Smith already formulated in 1759 in The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Why are people interested in the fortune of others? Both from an evolutionary and a social-psychological standpoint, there are ways of tracing back the origins of the altruistic nature of man. This inherent altruistic nature was significantly stimulated by both Christianity and the Islam, resulting in systematic forms of giving through practices such as charity and philanthropy.