This study aims at exploring the effect of individual gender beliefs on woman’s employment, type of employment and job satisfaction. It also explores the moderating role of social norms on individual level relationship between woman employee’s individual views and their job satisfaction. Data used is taken from European Value Survey- a large cross-national survey. To answer the Research Question two typological contexts were used: Turkey as a representative of a country with strong conservative norms and Nordic countries (Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Sweden): as representative of countries with strong egalitarian norms. Results show that individual gender beliefs do affect a chance of being employed, but not the type of employment. Analysis also revealed that gender beliefs affect the way women evaluate their job satisfaction. Finally, it was found that social norms have a moderating role in a link between individual views and job satisfaction. The nature of this role differed depending on the types of contexts. In egalitarian context social norms tend to decrease egalitarians women’s reported job satisfaction. In conservative context social norms tend to increase egalitarians women’s reported job satisfaction.

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Jennifer Holland, Sjaak Braster
Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences

Khokhlovych, D. (2021, August). Social norms and individual beliefs as crucial macro and micro factors in female employment. Sociology. Retrieved from