The proposed model of this study, suggest structural reforms, specifically Constitutional Accommodation or reform. The suggested reform will facilitate power sharing scheme among conflicting actors, where they are the one to define what they want. The fundamental focus is reducing layers of political structures by either refinement of policy for autonomous government, or shift to federalization of government or adoption of a one-state- dual system to accommodate difference. The armed conflict in Southern Philippines is a compounded product of different factors since period of colonization and further exacerbated by modernization process. Efforts to promote economic activity ,vas responded as intrusion. It also widen disparity of income between the Muslims and Christians, which created insecurity of the other. The conflict constantly changing its arena, nature, and mode of resistance, the Muslims and Christians fought for assertion of dominance and identities under the backdrop of structural defects. It has been shaped by geopolitical issues, influence by resurgence of Islamic fundamentalism and Marxism. Sub-ethnic characteristics divide the Muslims, each having their own specific and different discourse in relation to demands - making it difficult to arrive at a compromise. United Nation sponsored independence for East Timor, serve as model for intensification of armed confrontation by Moro Islamic Liberation Front in order to capture international attention. Different traditional concepts of land ownership as opposed to government policy of resettlement, decongestion of urban centers, and introduction of multi-national corporations in relation to globalization has served as underlying context of the conflict. Constant threat to ancestral domain serve as inspiration to continue a secessionist movement among the Moros. Structural defects of the Constitution are translated into the political system and governance system. The failure to recognize ethnic diversity, specifically Islamic laws into the predominantly Christian society served as working context of the conflict. Three peace agreements were signed, and the Final Peace Agreement, in fact an irony, becomes the factor which makes it more difficult to arrive at a resolution with other actors involved in the conflict. The transitory government mandated by the agreement failed to perform its task. Rising expectations and frustrations of its constituents created another response which is more violent, and beyond the coverage of the agreement.

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Ling, L., Gasper, D.
Public Policy and Administration (PPA)
International Institute of Social Studies

Arellano, Ernesto S. Jr. (2000, December 15). Conflict and complexity: a framework for more adequate description and responses for the conflict in Mindanao. Public Policy and Administration (PPA). Retrieved from