This study is about religious freedom in Indonesia. It examines the cases of two religious minorities – the Ahmadiyah, and a Protestant Christian group. Fieldwork was conducted in Bogor City, a satellite city of Jakarta in Indonesia. Many violations of religious freedom were found to affect both of the selected religious minorities. These rights violations were carried out both by other religious organisations, and by local government authorities. Rights to freedom of worship were neglected in different ways: through direct violence, illegal acts including banning, arson and demolition of places of worship; withdrawal of permits; lack of police protection; failure to arrest perpetrators. The key findings were that the authorities failed to protect the religious freedoms and rights of minorities, as stipulated in the Constitution, as well as in state law and the government’s international legal obligations. The attacks on minority religious rights and freedoms are causing escalating tensions between different migrant communities living in Bogor. The study’s conclusions are that impunity needs to end, so that human rights principles can once more be respected and minority rights ensured.

Additional Metadata
Keywords religious freedom, minority rights, Indonesia, Bogor, violence, impunity, legal protection
Thesis Advisor Hintjens, Helen
Persistent URL
Series Conflict, Reconstruction and Human Security (CRS)
Hatumena, David Leonard. (2010, December 17). Religious freedoms and attacks on minority rights in Bogor city, Indonesia. Conflict, Reconstruction and Human Security (CRS). Retrieved from